Feeding cattle successfully is a bit like a horse race; a bad start can doom the chances of winning. Problems created during the starting phase increase the odds of sickness and affect performance for the entire feeding period.
Two primary issues need to be managed during the transition process. The behavior of the calf needs to be managed so that calves adjust to the feedlot environment as quickly and smoothly as possible. Secondly, the rumen needs to adapt to feedstuffs that may be quite different from what the calf was eating before weaning.
Behavior and environmental adjustments
Using starting pens designed with the calf in mind can help manage cattle behavior and minimize stress during receiving. Large pens with lots of room per head facilitate calves spending more time walking the fence and reduce opportunities to find feed and water. Dust problems during dry conditions become worse if there is a larger area churned up by a group of roaming calves, and the risk of spooking and breakouts increase.
Wide, shallow pen designs keep calves close to feed and water increasing their opportunities to encounter feed and water. Temporary panels can be used to cut larger pens into smaller, more manageable sizes. A 60-foot-deep pen with at least 12 inches of bunk space per head works well for the first 7 to 10 days; calves can be allowed more area after they have settled down. Some calves may not recognize water fountains, especially those coming from extensive range areas. Using additional water tanks so that calves can see open water can help make sure that water intake is not limited.
Calves also need to become accustomed to people. Walking calves up to the bunk right after feeding encourages feeding behaviors and acclimates them to handling at the same time. It is much easier to find and treat sick calves without additional stress if they are used to being handled. Calves that are afraid of people are surprisingly good at hiding signs of illness, at least until they become very sick. Investing time and effort to improve cattle handling skills pays dividends, especially considering the challenges in finding employees with livestock experience.
To encourage eating behaviors in the first few days, diets for starting calves need to be palatable and nutrient dense. Long-stem prairie hay is the traditional roughage of choice because calves recognize it as feed and it stimulates saliva production. However, prairie hay alone does not have enough energy or nutrients to support immune function and weight gains. Combining roughage with concentrate feeds helps calves achieve a positive energy balance more quickly.
Avoid using high-moisture corn or supplements containing urea during the receiving phase. Contrary to conventional wisdom, silage can be introduced during this stage, but only if it is high-quality without spoilage. Feed ingredients for starting diets should be chosen based on nutrient composition, quality, and palatability rather than on price alone.
Other management tips include:
- Feed two times a day to stimulate appetite and offer more opportunities for calves to eat fresh feed.
- Avoid using self-feeders, including hay rings. With these feeding methods there is no way to monitor actual intake and diet composition.
- Avoid over-feeding calves. Being too aggressive with feed deliveries in the starting phase can lead to intake swings and increased health problems. Reasonable daily dry matter intake targets for 500 to 600 pound calves would be 3 – 4 pounds the first two days, 9 pounds by day 7, and 14 pounds of dry matter by day 14.