Source: Tim Petry, Livestock Economist, North Dakota State University Extension Service
USDA-NASS released the monthly Cattle on Feed report on May 17, 2013. The report documented cattle and calves on feed on May 1 for slaughter market in the U.S. for feedlots with capacity of 1,000 head or more, cattle placements on feed during April, and fed cattle marketings during April. Prior to the report, news agencies such as Dow-Jones and Bloomberg survey industry market analysts for their predictions of the three categories. Probably the most important number in the report is the number of cattle on feed and how that compares to the previous year. The consensus of market analysts on the number of cattle on feed is usually close to the actual reported figure and the range in individual estimates relatively narrow. That was the case in this report as well. Analysts predicted cattle on feed at 96.3% of a year ago with a range of 95 to 98 percent. NASS reported 10.735 million head on feed, which was 96.6% of last year’s 11.11 million head. Monthly cattle on feed numbers have been running below the previous year since August 2012 which implies lower beef production. In the latest USDA World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) report released on May 10, a 3% decline in 2013 U.S. beef production was estimated.
The category that usually garners quite a bit of discussion and press coverage, and has a wide range in analysts’ estimates is placements. That was also the case again this month. Placements in feedlots during April totaled 1.75 million head, 15% above April 2012. The range in trade expectations was from 4.9% to 22% higher placements with an average of about 12%. So, all expected higher placements and the actual number was a little higher than the average. One question that arises is how could there be a 15% increase in placements when the 2012 calf crop was smaller. But many factors affect placements on a monthly basis. To begin, placements in April 2012 were historically low at 1.521 million head – the smallest number for April on record. The 1.75 million head placed in 2013, while above 2012, was 2% smaller than 2011. And April 2013 had one more business day than last year to place cattle. Several other factors may also have contributed to larger placements. USDA-AMS reported that April nationwide feeder cattle auction receipts were up 15%. Very dry conditions during April in the western side of the Plains states from Texas to North Dakota likely caused additional sales of feeder cattle. In the Northern Plains, more calves than normal were backgrounded and were marketed during April. For example, in the southeast South Dakota, northeast Nebraska and northwest Iowa area, drought damaged corn was chopped for silage instead of being harvested for grain. Feedlots in that area backgrounded cattle and sold them instead of feeding the cattle out to slaughter weight.
Dry weather may also have contributed to beef heifers that had been kept for replacement instead being marketed. On January 1, there were 2% more beef heifers kept for replacement in the U.S. In North Dakota where I am, there were 13% more beef replacements on Jan. 1, the highest since 1974 and the fourth highest on record.
Marketings of fed cattle during April totaled 1.86 million head about 2.2% above last year, mainly due to one more market day.
Fed cattle prices were lower last week. Across the 5-area market, liveweight steer prices averaged $125.38 per hundredweight down 86 cents for the week. Dressed weight prices declined $1.66 to average $200.72 for the week. The Choice boxed beef market recorded a weekly record high at $207.49, up $4.17 for the week. A late return of spring barbequing season and pre-holiday beef buying spurred the rally. The Choice-Select spread continued its seasonal rally to close up $2.39 at $15.16. Calf and feeder steer prices were mixed around the country with a lower undertone noted. Corn prices in Omaha on Thursday were up 9 cents a bushel for the week at $7.02.