Brain food

 Resize text         Printer-friendly version of this article Printer-friendly version of this article

If you are reading this, you might want to thank Homo erectus, or others of our early ancestors who learned how to do two things: eat meat and cook their food. Those dietary advances likely jump-started the evolution of the big, efficient brain that makes us Homo sapiens.

Two recently published scientific studies have added to evidence that the boost in available dietary nutrients gained by cooking foods, and particularly from cooking meats, provided the extra energy and social changes leading to the modern human brain.

Results of one recent study, published last month in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, compared the brain sizes of various primates along with the time each spends, or spent, on feeding each day. The brain, it turns out, requires considerable fuel to function – the human brain claims about 20 percent of the human body’s resting energy consumption.

But there is only so much a primate can eat, and only so many hours in the day in which to eat it. Gorillas are much larger than humans, but have smaller brains with fewer neurons. They spend most of their days eating raw vegetables in order to metabolize enough energy to fuel their bodies. So did our early ancestors such as Homo habilis.

The study, from researchers at the University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, found that “such a metabolic limitation was overcome in the human lineage by the advent of cooking food, which greatly increases the caloric yield of the diet, as a result of the greater ease of chewing, digestion, and absorption of foods.” They also note that the earlier addition of raw meat to the diet of earlier hominins may also have contributed to increase its caloric content, raw meat is difficult to chew and ingest, whereas cooked meat is easier to chew and has a higher caloric yield.

In addition, they found that cooking “would also have increased the time available for social and more cognitively demanding activities, which in turn would impose a positive pressure for increased numbers of neurons, now affordable by the new diet.”

Another research report, based on archeological studies in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania, recently was published in the online scientific journal PLOS One. In this study, researchers examined a 1.5-million-year-old skull of a malnourished hominin child. The skull shows signs of porotic hyperostosis, a form of anemia caused by deficiencies in vitamins B9 and B12, which likely occurred at weaning, according to the researchers. They theorize that by the time the child lived, our hominin ancestors had become regular meat eaters, which resulted in evolution of larger brains and more social organization. A period of scarcity of animal proteins could have negatively altered the nutritional content of the child’s mother’s breast milk or the child’s own diet to the extent that her nursing child ultimately died from malnourishment.

In a Live Science article, lead researcher Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo, from the University in Madrid, says the findings from Olduvai Gorge suggest that "human brain development could not have existed without a diet based on regular consumption of meat." He adds that regular consumption of meat at that time implies humans were hunters by then, as scavenging only rarely provides access to meat and is only feasible in African savannas on a seasonal basis.

"I know this will sound awful to vegetarians, but meat made us human," Domínguez-Rodrigo says.

For an interesting analysis of the role of diet in human evolution, read “Catching Fire: How cooking made us human,” a book by primatologist Richard Wrangham.



Comments (5) Leave a comment 

Name
e-Mail (required)
Location

Comment:

characters left

Darol    
Ohio  |  November, 26, 2012 at 10:22 AM

This is the kind of positive research article that is so good for national publication. If this could go out to consumers who aren't cattle producers.... it would be great. This is the kind of article that would be economically profitable for the Beef checkoff to use as a national press release to food magazines and large circulation media. Too bad the beef checkoff people are more worried about salaries, retirement benifits and their own health program than simple beef promotion. John you did the right thing -- shame on the Beef Board.

Bill    
Middletown CT  |  November, 30, 2012 at 09:06 AM

This article supposes that humans evolved from lesser creatures. There is no hard evidence to support the theory. To reach the conclusions reached in the article requires one to make assumptions based on "faith".. Evolution is a religion. And a false one at that.

michael    
kansas  |  November, 30, 2012 at 06:57 PM

Thanks for the very informative column. And I'm with Darol, this kind of reporting needs to reach a bigger audience. We in the business need to reach-out to the mal-informed consumers who're being force-fed vegan-slop and propaganda by the willfully ignorant mass media.

maxine    
SD  |  December, 03, 2012 at 07:31 PM

The comments here demonstrate one good reason for CBB to proceed with caution rather than bombard consumers with possibly more information that they will accept. Certainly if the comparison between humans and non-humans leads them into the 'life origins/Christianity/evolution' wars! For the record, Beef Checkoff and NCBA do train volunteer cattle producers to get messages out to the consumer, rather than to rely ONLY on media. Media can be so fickle, and even antagonistic toward animal agriculture for various reasons.

Dale    
Texas  |  December, 04, 2012 at 06:03 PM

I am a beef producer and I attended a beef short course. I promote health beef for human consumption ever chance I get. Brain food or not, it is a nutrition food for the body if prepared properly. That means from birth to my dinner table.


Bobcat 3650

The Bobcat 3650 utility vehicle offers heat and air conditioning, a hydrostatic drive and the capacity to operate front-mounted PTO ... Read More

View all Products in this segment

View All Buyers Guides

Feedback Form
Leads to Insight