USDA and the National Institutes of Health announced that an international consortium of researchers has published the genome of domestic cattle, the first livestock mammal to have its genetic blueprint sequenced and analyzed. The landmark research will bolster efforts to produce better beef and dairy products and lead to a better understanding of the human genome.
The sequencing and analysis of the bovine genome was funded in part by USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service and Agricultural Research Service, which contributed approximately $10 million. Approximately $25 million was contributed to the project by the National Human Genome Research Institute, part of NIH, which is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
"The cattle industry is extremely important for
"The domestic cattle genome sequence opens another window into our own genome," said acting NIH director Raynard S. Kington, MD, PhD. "By comparing the human genome to the genomes of many different species, such as the domestic cattle, we can gain a clearer view of how the human genome works in health and in disease."
In a paper published in the journal Science, researchers from the Bovine Genome Sequencing Project estimate that the genome of the domestic cattle (Bos taurus) contains approximately 22,000 genes and shares about 80 percent of its genes with humans. The researchers also report that the organization of human chromosomes is closer to that of domestic cattle than to those of rats or mice.
The analyses, which involved comparing the domestic cattle genome sequence to those of the human, dog, mouse, rat, opossum and platypus, provide critical insights into the structure and function of the human genome. The findings will also assist researchers working to improve the quality and safety of beef and dairy products. In addition, genomic information can be used to develop better strategies for treating and preventing diseases that affect cattle. Some of those diseases, including bovine spongiform encephalopathy, commonly known as mad cow disease, also can be transmitted — although very rarely — to humans.
Like humans and other mammals, the chromosomes of domestic cattle contain segmental duplications, which are large, almost identical copies of
In the domestic cattle genome, researchers found that some of these chromosomal rearrangements affect genes related to immunity, metabolism, digestion, reproduction and lactation. For instance, researchers think some of these changes may explain the unique ability of cattle to convert grass and other low-energy food sources into high-energy muscle, fat and milk.
Segmental duplications in the domestic cattle genome have also resulted in specialized roles for genes involved in immune response, such as those that make antimicrobial proteins in milk and their intestines. Researchers think these genes developed over time in response to the diversity of microbes that domestic cattle encounter and the vulnerability of animals that live in large herds to the spread of infectious diseases.
The breed of cattle selected for genome sequencing was
A related paper also appears in today’s issue of Science. In that paper, the Bovine HapMap Consortium unveils a map that charts key
Generally, the bovine HapMap indicates that present-day cattle came from a diverse ancestral population from
"The bovine HapMap will be a valuable resource and will transform how dairy and beef cattle are bred," said Richard Gibbs, PhD, at Baylor College of Medicine’s
Along with the Science papers, researchers published 20 companion reports describing more detailed analyses of the domestic cattle genome sequence in journals from the open access publisher BioMed Central.
The Bovine Genome Sequencing Project was led by researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, part of NHGRI’s Large-Scale Sequencing Research Network, USDA’s Agricultural Research Service,
Sequencing the bovine genome is part of USDA’s "Blueprint for USDA Efforts in Agricultural Animal Genomics," a 10-year plan developed in 2007 for research, education and extension in animal genomics in an effort to improve animal production practices.
Funding for the $53 million cattle-genome-sequencing project was provided by an international group consisting of CSREES, ARS, the National Human Genome Research Institute at the National Institutes of Health; the state of Texas; Genome Canada through Genome British Columbia; the Alberta Science and Research Authority; CSIRO; Agritech Investments Ltd., New Zealand; Dairy Insight, Inc., New Zealand; AgResearch Ltd., New Zealand; the Research Council of Norway; the Kleberg Foundation; and the National, Texas and South Dakota Beef Checkoff Funds.