Cattle producers and equine enthusiasts in the Southern Great Plains rely heavily on introduced warm-season grasses for their winter hay needs. Primarily, these grasses are either bermudagrass or old world bluestem varieties.
All varieties of old world bluestem and many varieties of bermudagrass are established from seed, but certain varieties of bermudagrass can only be established via sprigging because these varieties are hybrids and do not produce viable seed. Little information is readily available that allows producers to make economic comparisons between seeded and sprigged varieties of introduced warm-season grasses nor is there information that allows them to determine the best economical rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to apply to these grasses.
The purpose of this article is to provide producers in the Southern Great Plains with information about the economics of nine varieties of introduced warm-season grasses and the most economical nitrogen fertilizer rate for those grasses.
Data is summarized from a three-year (2008, 2009 and 2010), completely randomized-block-designed field study conducted at the Noble Foundation’s Pasture Demonstration Farm near Ardmore, Okla. This study was designed to evaluate forage yield and quality for nine varieties of introduced perennial grasses (six seeded and three sprigged varieties). The seeded varieties of bermudagrass included Cheyenne, Common, a mix of Common and Giant, and Wrangler. The old world bluestem varieties included B Dahl and Plains, and the sprigged varieties of bermudagrass included Coastal, Midland 99 and Tifton 85. Yield and quality measures, crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN), were collected from the study for each of the nine varieties fertilized with five rates of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200 and 300 pounds per acre). Extended details about the agronomic study can be found in a Noble Foundation Fact Sheet located online at www.noble. org/global/ag/soils/warm-seasonperennial-forage/nf-so-12-01.pdf.
Enterprise budgeting techniques were used to compute values for revenue, production costs and net return to land, owner’s labor, management, and farm overhead for two alternative hay enterprises, including a large round bale (1,200 pounds) preferred by cattle producers and a small square bale (55 pounds) preferred by equine enthusiasts. Hay prices as reported by the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture were used. Hay with CP and TDN above 10 percent and 60 percent, respectively, was given a premium price while all other hay was assigned the average price. Local market prices for 2011 for nitrogen fertilizer, grass seed, sprigs and pesticides, and published Oklahoma custom rates for field operations (disking, field cultivation, sprigging, broadcasting, and fertilizer and pesticide application) were used (oces.okstate.edu/kay/ag/ustomRates%202011-2012.pdf).