Vaccinate calves now in anticipation of weaning and preparation for sending the calves to market. I hope the calves already have had some vaccinations during branding or early summer cattle work, so now would be a good time to do booster vaccinations.
If the calves have not been vaccinated, now would be a good time to establish a vaccination plan with your local veterinarian. The Dickinson Research Extension Center, in response to the recommendation of our local veterinarian, uses vaccines as an aid in preventing the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine viral diarrhea type II and bovine respiratory syncytial virus.
These vaccines also aid in the control of bovine viral diarrhea type I and the bovine parainfluenza 3 virus, as well as the bacterial agents pasteurella haemolytica and pasteurella multocida.
Agents that cause disease typically are present and will impact calves negatively, particularly during times of stress. Vaccines that offer protection from disease-causing agents are readily available as combination vaccines and are named within cattle circles by the numbers of diseases that each product offers as protection.
For example, a product containing four agents (thus the common saying four-way) provides protection against four disease-causing agents and is available from several vaccine companies and in several product formulations. Killed and modified live products are available and need to be administered according to the well-displayed, easy-to-read labels that the companies provide.
In addition to the previously mentioned viral and bacterial agents, the center also vaccinates all the calves with a seven-way clostridial bacterin-toxoid, including blackleg caused by clostridium chauvoei; malignant edema caused by Cl. septicum; black disease caused by Cl. novyi; gas-gangrene caused by Cl. sordellii; and enterotoxemia and enteritis caused by Cl. perfringens types C and D, plus histophilus (haemophilus) somnus.
Some ranchers would say that is enough. In fact, some would say there isn't a need to vaccinate. That simply is not true. All cattle need protection from the various pathogenic agents that exist if there is going to be a potential for exposure.
The first question always is health, but unvaccinated cattle can be and generally are very healthy. You don't find disease-causing agents everywhere.
However, when they are present, they will do some damage, so the second question is about risk.
Unvaccinated calves have a greater risk of developing an illness with greater morbidity and mortality when they have no immunity to the pathogenic agent present. Good business sense would then say to vaccinate the calves if a vaccine is available.