Leptospirosis is an important disease entity that can cause substantial productivity and profitability losses in the U.S. beef industry, particularly through its effect on reproductive performance and calf losses.

    • The primary cause of bovine leptospirosis in the United States is Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type Hardjo-bovis, commonly called Lepto hardjo-bovis.1,2
    • A study conducted in six states with a cross section of environmental and management conditions representative of the U.S. beef cattle industry found overall prevalence of Lepto hardjo-bovis in cattle herds to be 42 percent.3
    • Another study suggested 59 percent of U.S. dairy herds may be infected with leptospira.4
    • Infection of human leptospirosis can occur through exposure to urine, placentas or aborted calves from infected cows and cause a flu-like disease.5,6
      • A medical study in New Zealand indicates that hardjo-bovis is responsible for 46 percent of all human leptospirosis cases in that country.7
      • Prevention of leptospiral infection in producers by cattle herd vaccination has become a common practice in New Zealand.8


  • Disease caused by Lepto hardjo-bovis is generally subclinical in cattle and difficult to diagnose, the most common clinical presentations include:
    • Fetal infections, with resulting abortions
    • Stillbirths
    • Birth of weak calves
    • Reduced reproductive performance


  • Most commercial 5-way leptospirosis vaccines in the United States contain hardjo prajitno – not hardjo bovis ‑ as the hardjo antigen.
    • Hardjo prajitno is found primarily in the United Kingdom.6,9,10
    • The use of hardjo prajitno antigen in U.S. vaccines – rather than hardjo-bovis – may explain the lack of complete protection of cattle against Lepto hardjo-bovis afforded by standard commercial vaccines.6,9,10


  • Use of a Lepto hardjo-bovis vaccine with label indications for year-long prevention of urinary shedding and renal colonization and that preventsreproductive tract colonization, is an effective management tool for helping to improve reproductive performance in U.S. beef and dairy herds.
    • Bovi-Shield GOLD® HB* provides superior protection against Lepto hardjo-bovis for at least 365 days, which is unmatched in the industry.

*The Bovi-Shield GOLD line and PregGuard® GOLD FP® 10 are recommended for vaccination of healthy cows and heifers approximately 1 month prior to breeding. These products can also be administered to pregnant cattle provided they were vaccinated, according to label directions, with any Bovi-Shield GOLD FP or PregGuard GOLD FP vaccine prior to breeding initially and within 12 months thereafter. Failure to follow label directions may result in abortions. The Bovi-Shield GOLD line may be administered to calves nursing pregnant cows, pr