Rotational or intensive grazing strategies can offer numerous benefits in terms of range quality and animal efficiency. Another possible benefit is the reduction of stress caused by biting flies. Rancher and range management consultant Charlie Orchard, Bozeman, Mont., says that by moving cattle frequently, you can leave the flies behind. Flies lay their eggs in fresh manure, he explains. Once adult flies emerge, their range of travel is limited. They typically live out their lives within a few hundred yards of hatching. In intensively managed grazing programs, where cattle frequently move to new pastures or paddocks, the herd could be a considerable distance away by the time flies emerge. Fewer flies locate cattle to bite, depriving them of the blood meals they need to reproduce.