Texas A&M researchers studied the effects of time of castration on production and profit in stockers grazed on native range in the Rolling Plains of Texas. The study included 279 calves (average initial weight of 475 pounds) in five loads from Central, North, and West Texas auctions; 49 percent were bulls castrated within 24 hours of arrival. Cattle were received in December, preconditioned for 35 days, and then grazed until July–August. Sickness in newly castrated calves was 60 percent, compared to 25 percent for steers already castrated. New castrates gained significantly less (1.42 pounds/day vs. 1.64 pounds/day) and had lower gross returns ($192.19/head vs. $216.04/head) than those already castrated.