We’ll all be vegetarians by 2050, scientists say

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All of us may be forced to become vegetarians this century, according to scientists at the Stockholm International Water Institute.

In a report issued this week, Sweden’s water scientists said, "There will not be enough water available on current croplands to produce food for the expected 9 billion population in 2050 if we follow current trends and changes towards diets common in western nations."

Animal-based foods currently make up about 20 percent of humans daily protein intake. But the Swedish report says the world’s population will have to cut that figure to 5 percent by 2050 to accommodate the planet’s "considerable regional water deficits."

Despite increasing per capita food production, the Swedish report says, "Nine hundred million people already go hungry and 2 billion people are malnourished. With 70 percent of all available water being in agriculture, growing more food to feed an additional 2 billion people by 2050 will place greater pressure on available water and land."

Their answer to the dilemma is for vegetarianism to increase. The scientists believe more vegetarian diets could help free up large portions of arable land to human food production.

The report was released for the start of “Water Week” and the annual world water conference in Stockholm.

The idea that water shortages will force changes to livestock production is not new, however.  Three years ago Drovers/CattleNetwork columnist Suzanne Bopp noted that “for years, outlandish claims have been floated about the amount of water cattle production requires. Producing a pound of beef is said to take anything from 2,500 gallons of water to as much as 6,000 gallons (according to Stanford professors Paul R. and Anne H. Ehrlich in their book Population, Resources, Environment). Newsweek once reported that the water required by a 1,000 pound steer over its lifetime ‘would float a destroyer.’”

Bopp wrote that U.C. Davis animal scientist Jim Oltjen found that a pound of beef “actually requires 441 gallons of water. NCBA uses his research to answer claims of egregious water waste in the beef industry, as they do at length on their Web site, beeffrompasturetoplate.org.”

Still sound like a lot of water? The website waterfootprint.org says a pound of rice requires 403 gallons of water and a pound of chocolate needs 2,847 gallons.

“And while half our water does go to agriculture, of course it’s not the case that all, or even most, of it is going to grow feed for livestock, as some have claimed,” Bopp wrote. “Research published in the Journal of Animal Science concluded that our total livestock production took just about 11 percent of our water. The water to grow crops that become livestock feed was 9.7 percent of all water use; livestock consumption, at 1.2 percent of water use, made up the rest of the total.

“As for the floating destroyer claim, the NCBA Web site puts that to rest as well. They use the U.S. Navy’s report that a destroyer needs about 2.11 million gallons of water to float. As we’ve learned, it takes 435 gallons of water to create a pound of boneless beef. If a steer weighing 1,000 pounds yields 450 pounds of boneless beef, that means it needs a total of 195,750 gallons of water  —  which would leave the destroyer high and dry.”

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Marcia Callaway    
Georgia  |  August, 29, 2012 at 08:47 AM

Not me. BEEF is what's for Dinner! Now and ALWAYS!

Fuzzy Future    
North Dakota  |  August, 29, 2012 at 09:07 AM

Doom and gloom predictions...thank GOODNESS we have a world cleansing coming in Dec of 2012! And I absolutely refuse to give up my chocolate...

Missouri  |  August, 29, 2012 at 09:00 AM

Has anyone thought about how much water it takes to produce a gallon of ethanol? I don't know, but I think I would be safe to wager it takes more than producing a pound of beef, lamb, pork, or chicken. Let's face it, man is a carnivore, always has been, and I hope, always will be, at least in my lifetime! As one of my statistics professor used to say,"figures don't lie, but liars can figure..." , meaning that anyone with an agenda can manipulate figures in such a way as to support their theories, cockeyed or not. While those of us in the livestock industry know what it takes to produce our products, we have a pretty poor job of educating the general public about the true facts. That's our nature. We don't like getting in people's faces with the truth, but maybe it's time we started being advocates for agriculture, not just the nameless, faceless people who feed the world. Overpopulation is the real problem, not the beef industry.

Middletown Ct  |  August, 29, 2012 at 09:15 AM

I guess they never heard of "rain".

MO  |  August, 29, 2012 at 09:26 AM

Rain????? What's that??? Interesting concept, not sure it is possible anymore!!!!

Farm girl    
corn country  |  August, 29, 2012 at 09:54 AM

Perhaps the Swedish scientists would have more than one recommended solution if Europe actually accepted and produced biotech crops and other scientific innovations rather than resorting to listening to activist groups for their poor agricultural and food policies. We can feed everyone in 2050 with modern agriculture - the only reason we wouldn't be able to is not water, it's poorly prescribed ag and food policies that are not based on science, common sense, and expert opinions of farmers and industry employees. More water can be saved by getting people to take shorter showers than will ever be saved by vegetarianism. Oh and PS to the anti ethanol comment below, you forget that the corn the produces ethanol uses only the starch for the ethanol....the rest of the crop continues on for animal feed and many many other products. Corn sweetener or ethanol, take your pick, but you're not "losing" anything to corn production for ethanol.

shaun evertson    
nebraska  |  August, 29, 2012 at 10:00 AM

This is what happens when people exist only in and artificial environment and "think big thoughts" built on a foundation of flawed assumption and fantasy. Sometimes I wonder if anyone other than farmers and ranchers ever visit the real world.

California  |  August, 29, 2012 at 10:11 AM

I think 38 years is too long to wait for people to evolve into compassion and stop eating animal carcasses. What a much better, healthier world it will be, free of so much suffering and disease.

August, 29, 2012 at 10:17 AM

70% of all water is used in agriculture? Do these people realize all produce/vegetables are agriculture? What a skewed view of the facts they have chosen to portray.

tx  |  August, 29, 2012 at 10:17 AM

we will all be drinking absolut sweedish vodka too. mathusian drama. same wagon wheel different country. J

August, 29, 2012 at 10:34 AM

Yes it will be healthier world once all the vegetarians are gone from lack of good nutrition. Carnivores will be left to rule the earth and we will be free of the suffering put upon us by you stupid vegetarians and vegans... More meat for me!

Rancher Daughter 57    
Kansas City, MO  |  August, 29, 2012 at 10:36 AM

Yes it will be healthier world once all the vegetarians are gone from lack of good nutrition. Carnivores will be left to rule the earth and we will be free of the suffering put upon us by you stupid vegetarians and vegans... More meat for me!

Stormin' Norman    
Kansas City, MO  |  August, 29, 2012 at 10:37 AM

Yes it will be healthier world once all the vegetarians are gone from lack of good nutrition. Carnivores will be left to rule the earth and we will be free of the suffering put upon us by you stupid vegetarians and vegans... More meat for me!

Malta, MT  |  August, 29, 2012 at 10:47 AM

Very interesting. Paul Erlich and his wife have donated between $1,000 and $5,000 to the American Prairie Reserve. Additionally, Paul is listed as a Scientific Advisor for APR. APR uses federally tax free dollars to purchase livestock operations in hopes of creating a 3 million acre preserve with 10,000 free roaming buffalo in North Central Montana. In terms of red beef production, 10,000 head of cattle would produce enough cull cows and feeder calves, when converted to red meat would feed 61,000 people annually. Is it not a little hypocritical to support the idea of removing large swaths of agricultural land with federally tax free dollars only to say “see there is not enough resources to eat meat protein, therefore you must be a vegetarian”.

August, 29, 2012 at 10:57 AM

Barbara vegetarians are not immune to suffering & disease. In fact my parents live on a farm, i have relatives who were meat eaters and lived to be 105. Most of my family tree lived into their 90's, even several hundred years ago my ancestors were living into their 80's which was quite a feat with no medicine to speak of. Conversely in the farming community where we live, the vegans have very short life spans in comparison. Reading the obituaries of our neighbors who live past one hundred they often mention how much they loved a good steak. The vegans perish from disease often at half that age. Frequently from cancer. Maybe it is their immune system being overtaxed from trying to extract nutrients from plant life only and being devoid completely of heme iron. We have incisors for a reason. We are omnivores. Making use otherwise goes against our natural makeup and stresses the system. Good Luck to you.

August, 29, 2012 at 11:01 AM

The key word in this is "available". What did they use to define this term? Available water can be changed. Building Larger storage systems for example. Reclaiming more run off so there is more available water and less flooding. Utilizing ocean water. "Available" is such a subjective term and saying ag uses 70 percent of all water "available" makes me think that they have quite a narrow definition of the term.

Iowa  |  August, 29, 2012 at 11:48 AM

Let's face it, man is an omnivore my friend :) and yes, current production practices are not sustainable unless you are a permaculture organic guy. We've started recycling water on my farm and using gravity fed systems... water is surely the next gold... and overpopulation will take care of itself.

California  |  August, 29, 2012 at 02:02 PM

I have heard all of these arguments before. Maybe the "reason" to not eat dead animals is because it is inhumane to kill them The animals have disease and suffering, and then they are killed because someone wants to stuff their face, and can't imagine a more thoughtful or tasty alternative. I am a healthy, happy, strong and slender, active 60 plus vegetarian. Have been one for over 40 years. People used to think that wearing a fur coat was a display of prosperity and "class". That belief has become obsolete. We don't have to adhere to whatever behavior we invent as the myth of our destiny or physiology.

Daren Williams    
Denver  |  August, 29, 2012 at 05:30 PM

Great points, Farm girl!

Daren Williams    
Denver  |  August, 29, 2012 at 05:35 PM

I wonder if they considered how much water it would take to convert the "arable" land where cattle graze into plant food production. After all, 85 percent of the land where cattle graze currently in the U.S. is not suitable for crop production, primarily because of lack of water (and soil type, climate and topography). The environmental toll of converting these marginal lands to food crop production would far exceed that of letting cattle turn native grasses into protein!

Utah  |  August, 29, 2012 at 05:51 PM

No one can argue that water is under increasing pressure for rational use. The real questions are 1) What is the most efficient use of water to feed a growing population, and 2) Where can we improve in irrigation efficiencies and eliminate water waste? It may be that the 98% of the population not involved in growing food would be willing to cut back on the 30% of the water they use daily to keep food on the table. If someone can really show us a more efficient way to meet the dietary demands of the global population without animal proteins, we will surely listen.

Nebraska  |  August, 29, 2012 at 07:13 PM

Over population? Save the animals but kill the babies. It is all economics, when water gets to expensive we will figure out how to take the salt out of salt water. It is all economics, when the rancher becomes more profitable than the farmer the cattle herd will expand.

USA  |  August, 30, 2012 at 08:06 AM

This is just such a ridiculus arguement. It does not pass the basic sniff test. The water used in agriculture is not consumed and lost forever, never to be seen again...If it was we would have all been dead millions of years ago. The only thing that can said about these type of reports is that they are published to drive somebodies radical agenda as to what we should all eat, do and think. Rational thinking folks have to laugh at this type of fodder that some try to pass as science.

iowa  |  August, 30, 2012 at 09:07 AM

Don't fall into the trap of arguing the logistics of the case. What this really means is that some people want to force others from their freedom of choice to feed their families how they choose. This is a "free will" issue disguised as a "save the world" issue. Oh, by the way, the sky is falling!!

South Carolina  |  August, 30, 2012 at 10:03 AM

Roger below is correct. This is a freedom of choice attack. Leaving that for the moment, 2050 is 38 years away. 38 years ago, 1974, we had a very different world. No personal computers. No cell phones. We just barely had fax machines, the wonder of the age. By 2050 technology will change and feeding 9 billion people will not be for lack of water. Sun powered seawater evaporation systems with pure water condensation will be easily affordable operating automatically and generating all the water needed. Other technologies mentioned below (capturing more run off rain water, better recycling of dirty water) will be available. These gloom sayers always use today's technology extrapolated way into the future and ignore the creativity of mankind. I'll take mine medium rare.

SD  |  August, 30, 2012 at 12:03 PM

'Feeding the world' is far more complex than forcing all to become vegans, despite what some vegans seem to believe. First, what about politics in some of the poorest nations where the rulers prevent food assistance to the poorest people? How much food is wasted by improper preparation for storing and transport? Regarding water 'consumed', why is the fact that water evaporates and is thereby purified and returned to earth ALWAYS ignored by the 'doom and gloom' crowd? We do need to be more aware of our personal useage and waste, too. City parks sure do look pretty, as do golf courses, but at what 'water cost'? Granted I enjoy looking at those 'green' spaces when we are in a drought, but too many people criticize farmer/ranchers and don't even think about their own 'waste' flowing down drains and into our rivers. BTW, some current research shows the amount of water to produce a pound of beef as about 441 gallons, far less than the activists trying to scare us into becoming vegans claim. Source, UC, Davis. It takes 401 gallons of water to grow a pound of rice!

Kansas  |  August, 30, 2012 at 12:15 PM

I think most of the comments are missing the point on this issue. No one will be telling people that they can't eat meat but it may become so expensive in terms of energy and water that less and less people will be able to afford to include lots of meat in their diet. People will still be raising livestock and people will still eat meat but we might be eating less when water becomes more dear. That probably includes some other changes as well - fewer fescue lawns and swimming pools.

WI  |  August, 30, 2012 at 02:31 PM

I still wish for all of those out, there that believe we can feed the world by going vegan, to run the numbers and demonstrate to me how we can meet the world's PROTEIN needs with plant based protiens. I ran the numbers for the US (which has quite a bit of farmable crop ground for it's population), and using a high yielding soybean on all of our census available ground that could be cropped.....we can't provide enough protein. How can we feed the world? Now let's say that the soybean I used was a high yeilding GMO soybean species treated with available chemicals to inprove yield, if we make it into a lower yielding organic soybean then we really don't have the land to provide for the world's protein needs. Also remember that ONLY soybeans would be available for consumption, no other food stuffs, and soybeans can make the land more susceptible to erosion (loss of topsoil). Please some one that can make this public please do so.

August, 30, 2012 at 07:48 PM

Right on thats the problem these days the people are so misinformed about ag. The news media and politions blow everything out of perspective, and for the sciencetis saying and i quote vegetarianism not me I like meat you need it in your diet

August, 30, 2012 at 07:48 PM

Right on thats the problem these days the people are so misinformed about ag. The news media and politions blow everything out of perspective, and for the sciencetis saying and i quote vegetarianism not me I like meat you need it in your diet

SD  |  August, 30, 2012 at 09:30 PM

Its time to eliminate all non-profits except churches and schools-everything else is a sham and creates a doubled loss of tax dollars by creating a tax deduction as well as those dollars being used essentially for administration and fundraising of these organizations.

Iowa  |  August, 31, 2012 at 08:42 AM

I get really sick of vegetarians, vegans, pro-PETA and humane society advocates putting down animal agriculture. Farmers, such as myself, take great pride in taking care of our animals to provide a quality product for the world to eat. In fact we probably take greater care of the animals on our farms than we do ourselves! I don't understand why these people always feel the need to attack farmers the way that they do. Apparently they have way more time on their hands than we do, the ones that do feed the world.

Minnesota  |  August, 31, 2012 at 08:48 AM

sheep and goats can live in the mountains and desert and do not need to compete for crop land. The report that we all need to become vegetarians smells like an agenda to me.

Robin Newell    
Johnston, Iowa  |  August, 31, 2012 at 09:25 AM

The rain will fall, and the forages will grow, even on soils that aren't well suited to crops other than forages. So there will continue to be ruminants on the ag landscape. Thank goodness, because people don't eat forages very well. That water doesn't just disappear from the water cycle. It evaporates and goes back to the atmosphere where it can fall as precipitation again. A slam against ruminants for their water use is sort of like a slam against fish for living in water. How ridiculous would it be to say that a pound of fish production requires 985,500 gallons of water just because a one-pound fish happens to live in water and pushes four ounces of water through it's gills every second for a year?

Mi  |  August, 31, 2012 at 09:59 AM

The reason people go hungry is a lack of money caused by dictators or communist leaders , farmers will produce what ever the world can pay for, just give us enough money to get it done.

Kansas  |  August, 31, 2012 at 10:33 AM

To Barbara: It is in humane to kill animals that we raise for food, because "it will be free of so much suffering and disease"… Uhh? These animals do not suffer and they do not have diseases, if they did, they would not be used for a food source. These animals are taken very good care of and they do not suffer as PETA portrays through their marketing campaigns. It is no different than the animals that you kill every day…you just do not eat them, nor would I for that matter. By the way PETA, is a group that states, “Animal exploiters kill millions of animals every year-and do so not out of compassion, but out of greed”. Maybe you should figure out your story and stick with it, so is it suffering and disease or is it out of greed? We now know that you would not kill anything unless it was out of compassion. Oh, I got it now….you want everyone to eat like vegans because that is your choice of life style and you want everyone else to eat like you do. Therefore, here is what is going to happen. I am going to join PETA. However, I just not going to join your PETA - People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, but PETA – People Enjoy Eating Tasty Animals. I am going to be compassionate about killing the cows, dear, pheasant, dove, turkey, and what ever else strikes me and then I am going to eat it. We all need some type of protein and moderate eating of meat and vegetables will ensure health. The fact is that the brain of human beings requires meat. Meat is the only source of Active VB12 and without it, your brain becomes irrational. Therefore, I believe that you diet has made you irrational …. EAT BEEF!!!

Wisconsin  |  August, 31, 2012 at 01:16 PM

Glenn, you may be correct saying that a vegan diet can make a person "irrational". I might also add it makes some people prone to suggestion. If a diet does not provide the neccisary nutrients needed by the body, the body will scavange those nutrients from somewhere else. Unfortunately there really is nowhere else a body can scavange from other then itself. A strict vegetarian diet can be very beneficial to SOME people, but not ALL since we are ALL different. We cannot simply change our physiology in a mear 38 years. We haven't been able to change that on well over 250,000 years so any idea that changing our minds about what we eat is pure fantasy. I'll have my steak well done please and ice cream for desert :)

August, 31, 2012 at 04:11 PM

Actually man was never a carnivore until modern times. Do you really think our ancestor were just walking around slaying animals 5 -10 with ease on a daily basis? Our ancestors were omnivores with 90% -100% of a plant based diet. They most certainly weren't eating cows languishing in small holding stalls. Why is America so unhealthy? We got away from eating the foods that most benefit of cellular processes. Nutrient rich plant foods.

August, 31, 2012 at 04:20 PM

Sorry. I meant to say slaying animals 5-10 times their size. Cell phone issues.

Kansas  |  August, 31, 2012 at 06:35 PM

Agree Patrick. Barbara, I asume, so you are saying that we started out as horbevores and you think that scince civilization has advanced that we should return to that time period. So, are you also stating that you are going to give up your 2,500 sq. ft. house that has running water, heating and air conditioner...you do not need a stove if you are eating all fruit and vegitables...electricity and gas. You could live in a sod house and grow your own food...like back in the day... Seriously, Please pass the steak and potatos...:-)

Temple, TX  |  August, 31, 2012 at 09:34 PM

Why is a vegetarian a subscriber to Drovers? Don't you have some vegetable magazine to read and share your ideas with other like minded people who care about your opinions.

Dryden,VA.  |  September, 01, 2012 at 07:11 AM

Beer isf has always and continues to be one of the best all around entrees their is.Throw it on the grill,a little salt and pepper.Mmmm The best flavor ever.

Wisconsin  |  September, 01, 2012 at 10:11 AM

Man was never a carnivore until modern times? Please define modern. Were our ancestors slaying animals with ease? Actually, yes! Pre-historic man, (or modern by your timetable I guess) would try to wound a large animal seriously enough that it would no longer be able to run away from it's hunter. Getting close enough to a wild animal to insert a spear into it was the hardest part. Tracking it down may have taken a few days but you would be surprised how quickly a wounded animal can tire out if constantly forced to keep moving. I think Ms Anonymous person that you should do a little studying of anthropology. Our ancestors ate whatever they could get their hands on. And that could have been anything. A truck never pulled up and dropped food off at the local grocery store. One thing that is never realized is that one of the rarest phenomena in nature is a period of weather long enough to grow crops. Our ancestors knew this and many times their reaction was to follow migrating herds of animals for food, clothing and shelter. I anyone thinks that being a vegetarian is somehow going to "save" the earth or anything else for that matter they better think again. Vegetarians rely heavily on an industrialized society for their survival. Take away one facet of that artificially created world and things fall apart pretty quick for them. BBQ anyone?

Wanda Di Lallo    
Brazil  |  September, 01, 2012 at 10:54 AM

Vegans are peaceful people and they will live much more years than the eaters of animal carcasses, so, we can expect a better world to all the animals and the humankind, that is not 'kind' yet, because the vegans will win this cause very soon, maybe before these 38 years, because our strenght comes from an ethical behavior.

Missouri  |  September, 01, 2012 at 01:08 PM

What a JOKE, this from the same country of my relatives that gave our President A Nobel Peace Price for Just being elected President

Missouri  |  September, 01, 2012 at 01:08 PM

What a JOKE, this from the same country of my relatives that gave our President A Nobel Peace Price for Just being elected President

Wisconsin  |  September, 01, 2012 at 02:39 PM

Wanda, you will win this cause very soon? How? And who are you to define who is kind or not? Have you heard of groups like ALF (animal liberation front) or The Final Straw or the Ruckus society? These people are PROUD of burning farms to the ground and killing animals in the name of animal rights. Ethical? NOT! And I have yet to encounter a vegan who at one point or another hasn't declared a deep hatered for,.... themselves. Don't get on the wrong side of those fanatics Wanda, EVER! You will get hurt.

Wis  |  September, 02, 2012 at 06:52 AM

What ever shall we do with all the domesticated animals? I will be compassionate and let them eat off of my fertilized and watered lawn. And when life ends for this creature, I will find a place for it in my freezer. Oh and its offspring can continue living in my back yard as long as they continue to produce these carcasses that no one should eat. I will continue to find freezer space. I don't know when the Indians first began this, but I find arrow heads in my fields....they must have used them for cutting down grass to make paths because what I am hearing here is that they were Herbivores?? Time to Grill dinner.

canada  |  September, 02, 2012 at 03:14 PM

Barbara from California who says: " [Vegan diet] better, healthier world it will be, free of so much suffering and disease " Someone stole your common sense ... no more suffering and disease !?!?!?!? ... I am laughing my butt off at you Barbara. How can anyone in today's society not have access to the basic fundamentals of balanced nutrition. Where did you find the studies/facts to support your theory? Are you willing to volunter your body to prove that you will not suffer or be diseased if you only eat vegetables?

canada  |  September, 02, 2012 at 03:19 PM

Daren Williams - your point is excellent but of course will not be acknowledged because most vegans have no clue how food is produced - let alone the ability to even produce enough for their own personal consumption.

Sarajevo  |  September, 03, 2012 at 03:31 AM

What is needed is more sustainable livestock production, especially as production is estimated to double from 2000 to 2050. Livestock farming is also one of the largest sources of atmospheric emissions, producing more greenhouse gases than driving cars. Of human related gases, livestock produces 9% of CO2, 65% of N2O (296 times the effect of CO2), 37% of all methane (23 times the effect of CO2) and 67% of all ammonia (produces acid rain). It also uses 30% of the earth's entire land surface. Doubling the size of this industry is not sustainable. All is not evil: Livestock supports 1.3 billion livelihoods, and provides renewable energy as draft animals to poor farmers as well as organic manure. However, we desperately need strong sustainability policies world- wide: more vegetable protein in diets, higher added-value products,. No room here for a dissertation!

winnipeg,manitoba  |  September, 04, 2012 at 08:57 AM

Its simple we all need to be resoruce ful and not careless! We all should be able to live on this planet and within our Means if we repect the enviorment!

September, 23, 2012 at 08:25 AM

Guess it'd be good to know the statistics on vegetables then, considering rice is not a staple of a vegetarian diet, meat industry is declining, like it or not...it will soon be dead.

Berkeley  |  October, 14, 2012 at 03:54 PM

And just how do you plan on feeding the "real problem" this growing population is turning out to be?

Kelinski  |  December, 16, 2012 at 08:26 PM

Freedom of choice for who? Certainly not the animals. Farmed animals have no freedom of choice. Choices are made for them from forced conception to forced death. If you want to eat animals, go catch one with your bare hands like real carnivores do. Good luck to you. It's pretty easy to talk about "freedom of choices" when you are in the priviledged position. Would you allow another species to do to you and your family what you do to cows, pigs, chickens, sheep? I thought not.

December, 19, 2012 at 07:07 AM

BECAUSE YOU KILL THE ANIMALS.....................................................................

February, 03, 2013 at 08:53 AM


hereford  |  February, 03, 2013 at 08:55 AM


UK  |  June, 19, 2014 at 06:10 AM

Health professionals disagree with you: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3662288/ "Healthy eating may be best achieved with a plant-based diet, which we define as a regimen that encourages whole, plant-based foods and discourages meats, dairy products, and eggs as well as all refined and processed foods."

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